- FM vocal model places a carrier near each formant
resonance, and modulates all carriers with a
common oscillator at the voice fundamental pitch.
- Instruments with a noisy attack and exponential
decay of sinusoidal partials are modeled well
with one simple FM pair for the attack, and
another pair for the decay. The nature of FM lends
itself to the higher harmonics or partials dying
away more rapidly than the lower spectral components.